Core Crown & Total Crown

Core Crown is a reporting term used in the Financial Statement of the Government of NZ (The Treasury) consisting of departments, Offices of Parliament, the NZS Fund and the Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Total crown includes the core Crown (defined above) plus Crown entities and State-owned Enterprises.

Ethnic pay gap

Ethnic pay gaps are defined as the difference between the average salary for an ethnic group and the average salary of those not in that ethnic group, and are expressed as a percentage of the average salary of those not in the ethnic group.

Ethnic representation

These metrics cover the number of employees who identify themselves as having a certain ethnicity. They are calculated by taking the number of people who identify themselves as being in the ethnic group divided by the number of people who have provided an ethnicity. A person may identify with up to three ethnicities in the HRC data collection.

Full time equivalent (FTE) and headcount

For the full-time equivalent metric, an employee is assigned an FTE value between 0 and 1 depending on the proportion of full-time hours (however defined by each department) worked. For example, an employee working full-time equals 1 FTE while an employee working 60% of full-time hours equals 0.6 of an FTE. The FTE values of all employees are added up to give the total number of FTE employees in an organisation. For the headcount metric, each employee is counted as one.

Gender pay gap

The gender pay gap used in the Public Service Workforce Data (PSWD) information is defined as the difference between the average salary for women and the average salary for men, and is expressed as a percentage of the average salary for men. Gender pay gap may also be calculated using median salaries. Agencies with small numbers of employees have not had their gender pay gaps reported due to the impact this may have on confidentiality or data quality. This follows guidance from Stats NZ on measuring organisational gender pay gaps. More information on analysing the gender pap gap within organisations can be found on the Ministry for Women website, including how it manages its own pay gap as a small agency.

Integrated Data Infrastructure (IDI)

The results in this report that have been derived from data sourced from the IDI, managed by Stats NZ, are not official statistics, they have been created for research purposes. The opinions, findings, recommendations, and conclusions expressed in relation to these results are those of the SSC, not Stats NZ.

Access to the anonymised data from the IDI used in this report was provided by Stats NZ in accordance with security and confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act 1975. Only people authorised by the Statistics Act 1975 are allowed to see data about a particular person, household, business, or organisation, and the results in this report have been confidentialised to protect these groups from identification.

Careful consideration has been given to the privacy, security, and confidentiality issues associated with using administrative and survey data in the IDI. Further detail can be found in the Privacy impact assessment for the Integrated Data Infrastructure available from www.stats.

The results are based in part on tax data supplied by Inland Revenue to Stats NZ under the Tax Administration Act 1994. This tax data must be used only for statistical purposes, and no individual information may be published or disclosed in any other form, or provided to Inland Revenue for administrative or regulatory purposes.

Any person who has had access to the unit record data has certified that they have been shown, have read, and have understood section 81 of the Tax Administration Act 1994, which relates to secrecy. Any discussion of data limitations or weaknesses is in the context of using the IDI for statistical purposes, and is not related to the data's ability to support Inland Revenue's core operational requirements.

Occupational groups

Occupational groups used in the Workforce Data have been defined from detailed occupational ANZSCO codes (Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations) supplied for each employee by departments. They have been designed to reflect key occupational groups for the Public Service.

Public Service

Public Service departments are defined in section 27 of the State Sector Act 1988 as comprising the departments specified in Schedule 1 of the State Sector Act. As at 30 June 2019 there were 34 Public Service departments.


The total number of staff whose employment ended owing to 'restructuring/severance' or 'redundancy' reason within the last 12 months.

Senior leaders

A Senior Leader is defined as an employee who is either a tier one, two or three manager in their department.

Sick / Domestic leave

The average number of days sick and domestic leave taken per employee metric includes permanent staff (i.e. excludes fixed term staff), and only includes staff that are eligible for sick leave.

Sickness absence includes absence for:

  • Injury covered by ACC, paid sick leave and unpaid sick leave; and


  • Dependant leave where a staff member is absent to care for a sick family member.

Sickness absence excludes long-term sick leave where staff have been moved from sick leave onto another arrangement such as Leave without Pay, and also excludes maternity/paternity leave.

The Workforce Data definition of sick leave was expanded in 2013 to align with Benchmarking Administration and Support Services (BASS) definitions. This had the effect of slightly increasing the Sick and Domestic leave balance.

State services

The State services comprises the agencies that operate as instruments of the Crown in respect of the Government of New Zealand (i.e. the Executive Branch of Government). This includes the Public Service, most Crown entities, the Reserve Bank, a range of agencies listed on the 4th Schedule of the Public Finance Act 1989, companies listed on Schedule 4A of the Public Finance Act, and a small number of departments that are not part of the Public Service.


The average length of time that an employee has worked in a single department (years). The metric includes permanent staff only.


Turnover rates for the Public Service are derived from the exits of staff from departments. As a result, turnover includes movements between departments and so the actual level of ‘loss' to the Public Service is below the figures reported in this report. Two turnover measures are used:

Core unplanned turnover – primarily due to resignations of permanent (open-term) employees, but also includes retirements, dismissals and deaths. Core turnover rate is calculated as follows:

  • Core turnover = (terminated permanent staff, who left due to resignation, retirement, dismissal, death or unknown reasons) / [(current year's permanent headcount + previous year's permanent headcount) / 2] x 100, (excludes fixed-term employees).

Gross turnover – includes both core unplanned and planned turnover. Planned turnover includes cessations of staff on fixed-term employment agreements and cessations due to restructuring. Gross turnover rate is calculated as follows:

  • Gross turnover = (terminated staff on permanent and fixed-term contracts who left for any reason)/ [(current year's headcount + previous year's headcount) / 2] x 100.

Workplace injuries

The workplace injuries section has two indicators that have been calculated using administrative data sourced from ACC:

  • All ACC claims per 1,000 FTEs – All work-related ACC claims over the calendar year that occurred in New Zealand; divided by total FTEs as at 30 June from the HRC data. Results with a small number of claims in a year have been suppressed.
  • Entitlement ACC claims per 1,000 FTEs – Entitlement work-related ACC claims over the calendar year that occurred in New Zealand; divided by total FTEs as at 30 June from the HRC data. Entitlement claims are more serious claims that involve additional payments beyond medical fees (e.g. loss of earning payments, rehabilitation payments, lump sums, and death benefits). Results with a small number of claims in a year have been suppressed.


The year of the survey. The HRC data collection is a snapshot of information as at 30 June of each year.

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