Core Crown & Total Crown

Core Crown is a reporting term used in the Financial Statement of the Government of NZ (The Treasury) consisting of departments, Offices of Parliament, the NZS Fund and the Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Total crown includes the core Crown (defined above) plus Crown entities and State-owned Enterprises.

Ethnic pay gap

Ethnic pay gaps are defined as the difference between the average salary for an ethnic group and the average salary of those not in that ethnic group and are expressed as a percentage of the average salary of those not in the ethnic group.

Ethnic representation

These metrics cover the number of employees who identify themselves as having a certain ethnicity.  They are calculated by taking the number of people who identify themselves as being in the ethnic group divided by the number of people who have provided an ethnicity. A person may identify with up to three ethnicities in this Workforce data collection.

Full-time equivalent (FTE); headcount and Part-time

For the full-time equivalent metric, an employee is assigned an FTE value between 0 and 1 depending on the proportion of full-time hours (however defined by each department) worked.  For example, an employee working full-time equals 1 FTE while an employee working 60% of full time hours equals 0.6 of an FTE. The FTE values of all employees are added up to give the total number of FTE employees in an organisation. For the headcount metric, each employee is counted as one.

For part-time employees, SSC uses the Stats NZ definition of part-time work, i.e. part-time workers employed usually work fewer than 30 hours per week.  For further information, refer to this link.

We define an employee as an individual who has an employment agreement with the chief executive, and to whom the usual conditions relating to being employees apply (e.g. the organisation can specify hours of work, place of work, supervision arrangements).

Please include these people

  • Current open term (permanent) and fixed term (temporary) employees at the collection date.
  • Employees seconded to other organisations.
  • Mainstream employees
  • Graduates if they are on a fixed term contract

Please exclude these people  

  • Casual employees - those employed on an "as and when required" basis, with no set hours of work and who have no ongoing expectation of employment.
  • Contractors - those providing a contract for service.
  • Secondees from other organisations. These employees are not included because they are counted in their home organisation.
  • Staff on parental leave or leave without pay.

* Important: This number needs to match the total status 1 and 3 FTEs in the employee level information.

Gender pay gap

The gender pay gap used in the Workforce Data information is defined as the difference between the average salary for women and the average salary for men, and is expressed as a percentage of the average salary for men. Gender pay gap may also be calculated using median salaries.  It includes permanent, fixed-term and seconded out staff.

Occupational groups

Occupational groups used in SSC’s Workforce Data collection have been defined from detailed occupational ANZSCO codes (Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations) supplied for each employee by departments. They have been designed to reflect key occupational groups for the Public Service.

Public Service

Public Service departments are defined in section 27 of the State Sector Act 1988 as comprising the departments specified in Schedule 1 of the State Sector Act.  As at 30 June 2020 there were 36 Public Service departments.


The total number of staff whose employment ended owing to 'restructuring/severance' or 'redundancy' reasons within the last 12 months.

Senior leaders

A Senior Leader is defined as an employee who is either a tier one, two or three manager in their department. Senior Leaders should not include professional, specialist, or support staff who report to the Chief Executive or Tier 2 Manager unless they have a management function as a significant part of their role.

Sick / Domestic leave

The average number of days sick and domestic leave taken per employee metric includes permanent staff (i.e. excludes fixed-term staff), and only includes staff that are eligible for sick leave.

Sickness absence includes absence for:

  • Injury covered by ACC, paid sick leave and unpaid sick leave; and
  • Dependant leave where a staff member is absent to care for a sick family member.

Sickness absence excludes long-term sick leave where staff have been moved from sick leave onto another arrangement such as Leave without Pay, and also excludes maternity/paternity leave.

Staff in acting roles

Some of your employees may be seconded into other roles internally in your agency. One approach is to include seconded employees in their substantive role. If they are receiving a special or higher duties allowance, another approach is to factor in the allowance to their base salary and include seconded employees in their seconded role. However, for consistency we recommend that you report these roles as you have done in previous years.

State services

The State services comprises the agencies that operate as instruments of the Crown in respect of the Government of New Zealand (i.e. the Executive Branch of Government). This includes the Public Service, most Crown entities, the Reserve Bank, a range of agencies listed on the 4th Schedule of the Public Finance Act 1989, companies listed on Schedule 4A of the Public Finance Act, and a small number of departments that are not part of the Public Service.

For further explanation on this, see the State sector organisations on SSC’s website.


The average length of time that an employee has worked in a single department (years). The metric includes permanent staff only.


Turnover rates for the Public Service are derived from the exits of staff from departments. As a result, turnover includes movements between departments and so the actual level of ‘loss' to the Public Service is below the figures reported in this report. Two turnover measures are used:

  • Core unplanned turnover – primarily due to resignations of permanent (open-term) employees, but also includes retirements, dismissals and deaths. Core turnover rate is calculated as follows:

Core turnover = (terminated permanent staff, who left due to resignation, retirement, dismissal, death or unknown reasons) / [(current year's permanent headcount + previous year's permanent headcount) / 2] x 100, (excludes fixed-term employees).

  • Gross turnover – includes both core unplanned and planned turnover. Planned turnover includes cessations of staff on fixed-term employment agreements and cessations due to restructuring. Gross turnover rate is calculated as follows:

Gross turnover = (terminated staff on permanent and fixed-term contracts who left for any reason)/ [(current year's headcount + previous year's headcount) / 2] x 100.


The year of the data collection. The Workforce Data collection is a snapshot of information as at 30 June of each year.

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