9. References

Acemoglu, D. (2001). Human capital policies and the distribution of income: A framework for analysis and literature review. Working Paper 01/03, The Treasury: Wellington.

Barnett, J. (1997). Gender wage gap: Part Two. An assessment of the relative impact of each industry. NZIER for the Ministry of Women's Affairs: Wellington.

Bayard, K., Hellerstein, J., Neumark, D., and Troske, K. (1999). New evidence on sex segregation and sex differences in wages from matched employee-employer data. NBER Working Paper W7003, National Bureau of Economic Research: Massachusetts.

Black, D.A. (1995). Discrimination in an equilibrium search model. Journal of Labor Economics, 13(2), 309-334.

Blau, F.D. and Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender differences in pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(4), 75-99.

Blinder, A.S. (1973). Wage discrimination: Reduced form and structural estimates. Journal of Human Resources, 8(4), 436-455.

Chauvin, K.W. and Ash, R.A. (1994). Gender earnings differentials in total pay, base pay, and contingent pay. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 47(4), 634-648.

Cook, D. and Briggs, P. (1997). Gender wage gap: Scenarios of the gender wage gap. NZIER for the Ministry of Women's Affairs: Wellington.

Deeks, J., Parker, J. and Ryan, R. (1994). Labour and employment relations in New Zealand. (2nd ed.). Longman Paul: Auckland.

Dex, S., Sutherland, H. and Joshi, H. (2000). Effects of minimum wages on the gender pay gap. National Institute Economic Review, 173, 80-88.

Dixon, S. (1996a). The distribution of earnings in New Zealand 1984-94. Labour Market Bulletin 1996:1, 45-100.

Dixon, S. (1996b). Labour force participation over the last ten years. Labour Market Bulletin 1996:2, 71-88.

Dixon, S. (1998). Growth in the dispersion of earnings: 1984-97. Labour Market Bulletin, 1998:1and2, 71-107.

Dixon, S. (2000). Pay inequality between men and women in New Zealand. Occasional Paper 2000/1, Labour Market Policy Group: Wellington.

Fortin, N.M. and Lemieux, T. (1998). Rank regressions, wage distributions, and the gender gap. Journal of Human Resources, 33(3), 610-643.

Groshen, E.L. (1991). The structure of the female/male wage differential: Is it who you are, what you do, or where you work? Journal of Human Resources, 26(3), 457-472.

Gupta, N.D., Oaxaca, R.L., and Smith, N. (1998). Wage dispersion, public sector wages and the stagnating Danish gender wage gap. Working Paper 98-18, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research: Denmark.

Hardy, M.A. (1993). Regression with dummy variables. Sage University Paper series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07-093. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Harkness, S. (1996). The gender earnings gap: Evidence from the UK. Fiscal Studies, 17(2), 1-36.

Hyman, P. (1992). The earnings gap and pay equity: Developments in five countries. Proceedings of the 5th Labour, Employment and Work in New Zealand Conference, Victoria University: Wellington.

Jones, F.L. (1983). On decomposing the wage gap: A critical comment on Blinder's method. Journal of Human Resources, 18(1), 126-130.

Juhn, C., Murphy, K.M., and Pierce, B. (1993). Wage inequality and the rise in returns to skill. Journal of Political Economy, 101(3), 410-442.

Kirkwood, H. (1998). Exploring the gap: An exploration of the difference in income received from wages and salaries by women and men in full-time employment. Statistics New Zealand: Wellington.

Lambert, S.F. (1993). Labour market experience in female wage equations: does the experience measure matter? Applied Economics, 25, 1439-1449.

Laroche, M. and Mérette, M. (2000). Measuring human capital in Canada. Working Paper 2000-05, Canada Finance: Ontario.

Levi, M.D. (1973). Errors in the variables bias in the presence of correctly measured variables. Econometrica, 41(5), 985-986.

Macpherson, D.A. and Hirsch, B.T. (1995). Wages and gender composition: Why do women's jobs pay less? Journal of Labor Economics, 13(3), 426-471.

Madden, D. (1999). Towards a broader explanation of male-female wage differences. Working Paper 99-11, Department of Political Economy: College Dublin.

Miller, P.W. (1994). Effects on earnings of the removal of direct discrimination in minimum wage rates: A validation of the Blinder decomposition. Labour Economics, 1, 347-363.

Morrison, P.S. (2001). Employment. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 42(1), 1-24.

Naur, M. and Smith, N. (1996). Cohort effects on the gender wage gap in Denmark. Working Paper 96-05, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research: Denmark.

Nesterova, D.V. and Sabirianova, K.Z. (1999). Investment in human capital under economic transformation in Russia. Working Paper 99/04, Economic Education and Research Consortium: Russia.

Nielsen, H.S. (1998). Two notes on discrimination and decomposition. Working Paper 98-01, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research: Denmark.

Oaxaca, R. (1973). Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets. International Economic Review, 14(3), 693-709.

Oaxaca, R.L. and Ransom, M.R. (1994). On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials. Journal of Econometrics, 61, 5-21.

Oaxaca, R.L. and Ransom, M.R. (1997). Identification in detailed wage decomposition. Working Paper 97-12, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research: Denmark.

O'Dea, D. (2000). The changes in New Zealand's income distribution. Working Paper 00/13, The Treasury: Wellington.

Ott, R.L. (1993). An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis (4th edition). Duxbery Press: California.

Preston, A.C. (2000a). Deregulation and relative wages: Stability and change in Australia. Discussion Paper 00/4, Women's Economic Policy Analysis Unit, Curtin University of Technology: Perth.

Preston, A.C. (2000b). Equal pay in W.A. Discussion Paper 00/6, Women's Economic Policy Analysis Unit, Curtin University of Technology: Perth.

Preston, A.C. (2000c). The Hayekian paradigm: Some distributive consequences. Proceedings of the Newcastle 2000 conference, Association of Industrial Relations Academics of Australia and New Zealand.

Reilly, K.T. and Wirjanto, T.S. (1998). Does more mean less? The male/female wage gap and the proportion of females at the establishment level. Working Paper 98-04, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research: Denmark.

Reiman, C. (2001). The gender wage gap in Australia: Accounting for linked employer-employee data from the 1995 Australian workplace industrial relations survey. Discussion Paper 54, National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling: University of Canberra.

State Services Commission. (2000). State Services Commission human resource capability survey of public service organisations and selected state sector organisations, as at 30 June 2000. State Services Commission: Wellington. (https://www.publicservice.govt.nz/siteset.htm)

State Services Commission. (2001). Human resource capability: survey of public service departments as at 30 June 2001. State Services Commission: Wellington. (https://www.publicservice.govt.nz/siteset.htm)

Suen, W. (1997). Decomposing wage residuals: Unmeasured skill or statistical artifact? Journal of Labor Economics, 15(3), 555-566.

Sung, Y, Zhang, J. and Chan, C. (2000). Gender wage differentials and occupational segregation in Hong Kong, 1981-1996. HIEBS Working Papers: Hong Kong Institute of Economics and Business Strategy.

Swaffield, J. (2000). Gender, motivation, experience and wages. Discussion Paper 0457, Centre for Economic Performance: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Szakats, A. (1988). Law of employment. (3rd edition). Butterworths: Wellington.

Waldfogel, J. (1998). Understanding the "family gap" in pay for women with children. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(1), 137-156.

Last modified: